Cover Image

Α rock engraving of Pan at Faskomelia Hill in Vouliagmeni, Attica The presence of the god Pan in the battle of Marathon

Mairy Giamalidi, Erietta Tzovara


The ancient deme of Aixonides Halai flourished on the southwestern slopes of Mount Hymettus, Attica. The geomorphological environment and the ancient architectural remains outline the deme’s rural character and provide evidence for a prosperous economy based on agriculture and fishery. Α significant number of various inscriptions has been found at the semi-mountainous areas of the deme. They have been attributed mainly to shepherds and their existence directly points to the rural use of the place. Recently, on a rocky plateau of Faskomelia hill, the rock engravings of two figures were detected. The figures are standing in line and have been identified with the god Pan and an hoplite. Pan is the one who precedes, and the hoplite the one that follows. After a short presentation of the Arcadian god Pan, the paper deals with the spread and establishment of his cult in Attica, his connection with the battle of Marathon and his role in the final victorious outcome. This never before seen engraving dates back to the first half of the 5th c. BC. The depiction of Pan together with a warrior-hoplite directly creates the allusion that the artist wanted to represent a scene from the battle of Marathon, capturing the moment that the Athenian army, in phalanx formation, is thrown to the barbarians at the double «δρόμῳ».


God Pan; hoplites; Battle of Marathon; engraving; Faskomelia-Vouliagmeni; deme of Aixonides Halai.

Full Text:



Arapogianni, X. 2000. “Tα σπήλαια του Πανός στην Αττική” (Diss. Universitat Thessaloniki 2000) (04.01.2021).

Andreou, I. 1994. “Ο Δήμος των Αιξωνίδων Αλών.” In The Archaeology of Athens and Attica under the Democracy, edited by W.D.E. Coulson, O. Palagia, T.L. Shear, H.A. Shapiro and F.J.Frost, 37:191–209. Oxbow Monograph.

Aston, E. 2011. Mixanthrôpoi: Animal‐Human Hybrid Deities in Greek Religion. Kernos Supplément, 25. Centre International d'Étude de la Religion Grecque Antique. Liège.

Barringer, J.M. 2001. The hunt in ancient Greece. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Bengtson, M. 1991. Ιστορία της Αρχαίας Ελλάδας. Αθήνα: Μέλισσα.

Boardman, J. 2000. The great god Pan: the survival of an image. Αθήνα: Άγρα.

Borgeaud, P. 1988. The cult of Pan in Ancient Greece. The University of Chicago Press.

Bultrighini, I. 2013. “The rock horoi of the Αttic.” Accessed in July 2020.

Bultrighini, I. 2015. “From Coast to Coast Epigraphic Evidence for Cult and Religion in Coastal Demes of Attica.” In Ancient Documents and their Contexts, First North American Congress of Greek and Latin Epigraphy, 2011, edited by J. Bodel and N. Dimitrova, 5:27–53. Boston: Brill.

Cartledge, P. 2007. “Democracy, Origins of Contribution to a Debate”. In Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece, edited by K. Raaflaub, J. Ober, and R. Wallace, 155-169. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Calfornia Press.

Deligeorghi-Alexopoulou, H. 1980. “Η σπηλιά, ναός του θεού Πάνα. Σπήλαια της Αττικής αφιερωμένα στη λατρεία του θεού.” Δελτίον Ελληνικής Σπηλαιολογικής Eταιρίας. Vol. XVII b, 113–76. Athens.

Dionysopoulos, D.Ch. 2012. Η μάχη του Μαραθώνα. Ιστορική και τοπογραφική προσέγγιση. Αθήνα: Καπόν.

Dodwell, E. 1819. A Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece, during the Years 1801, 1805 and 1806. Vol. i. London: Rodwell & Martin.

Eliot, C.W.J. 1962. Coastal Demes of Attika: a study of the policy of Kleisthenes, Phoenix. Vol. 5. Toronto: University Press.

Echeverría, F. 2012. “Hoplite and phalanx in Archaic and Classical Greece: a reassessment.” CP, 107(4): 291–318.

Fachard, S. 2016. “Modelling the Territories of Attic Demes: A Computational Approach.” In The Archaeology of Greece and Rome: Studies In Honour of Anthony Snodgrass, edited by J. Bintliff and N. Rutter, 192–222. Edinburgh: University Press.

Garland, R. 1992. Introducing new gods: The Politics of Athenian Religion. Cornell University Press. New York.

Gartziou-Tatti, A. 2013. “Gods, heroes and the battle of Marathon.” In Μarathon 2,500 years, edited by C. Carey and M. Edwards, BICS Suppl. 124, 91–110, University of London.

Giamalidi, M. 2013. “Τα νομίσματα και ο νομισματικός θησαυρός από το οικόπεδο Ι. & Σ. Σκλαβενίτη στη Βούλα.” NomChron, 31:17–34.

Giamalidi, M., and Daifa, Κ. 2013. “Νέα στοιχεία στην τοπογραφία του αρχαίου δήμου των Αλών Αιξωνίδων από την περιοχή της Βούλας.” In Proceedings “ΙΔ' Επιστημονικής Συνάντησης Νοτιοανατολικής Αττικής”, 6-9 Οκτωβρίου 2011, edited by A. Stefanis, 113–26. Καλύβια Αττικής: Εταιρεία Μελετών Νοτιοανατολικής Αττικής.

Giamalidi, M. Forthcoming. “Το Οδικό Δίκτυο του Αρχαίου Δήμου των Αιξωνίδων Αλών.” In Proceedings “ΙΖ' Επιστημονικής Συνάντησης Νοτιοανατολικής Αττικής”, 3-8 Οκτωβρίου 2018, Markopoulo Attikis.

Giamalidi, M., and Kanellopoulos Ch. Forthcoming. ''Ο ναός του Απόλλωνος Ζωστήρος.'' In Proceedings Διεθνούς Επιστημονικού Συνεδρίου “Ιερά και Λατρείες στο Αιγαίο από τους Πρώιμους Ιστορικούς Χρόνους έως και την Ύστερη Αρχαιότητα (11ος αι. π. Χ. - 6ος αι. μ. Χ.)”, 11-14 Σεπτεμβρίου 2019, Λήμνος.

Goette, H.R. 1994. “Neue attische Felsinschriften.” Klio 76:120–34.

Hafez, A.G. 2015. “The Social Position of the Hoplites in Classical Athens: A Historical Study”. Athens Journal of History, 1:135–46.

Herbig, R. 1949. Pan. Vittorio Klosterman Frankfurt Am Main.

Hoepfner, W. 2005. Η ιστορία της κατοικίας 5000 π.Χ. – 500 μ.Χ. Θεσσαλονίκη: University Studio Press.

Jones, J.E., A.J. Graham, L.H. Sackett, and M.I. Geroulanos. 1973. “An Attic country house below the cave of Pan at Vari.” BSA 68:355–452.

Kagan, D. 1961. “The origin and purposes of ostracism”. Hesperia, 30(4): 393–401.

Kapouzouz, M.E. 2009. “Γλυπτές παραστάσεις κυνηγών και κυνηγιού στην ελληνική τέχνη από τα αρχαϊκά χρόνια έως τα χρόνια των διαδόχων” Ph.D.diss., Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

Kaza-Papageorgiou, K. 2016. Η αρχαία Αστική οδός και το Μετρό κάτω από τη Λεωφόρο Βουλιαγμένης. Αθήνα: Εκδόσεις Καπόν.

Korres, M., ed. 2009. Αττικής Οδοί. Αρχαίοι δρόμοι της Αττικής. Αθήνα: Εκδόσεις Μέλισσα.

Kourouniotis, K. 1930. “Το ιερόν του Απόλλωνος του Ζωστήρος.” ArchDelt (1927-28) 11:2–53 (Μελέτες).

Krasilnikoff, J. 2008. “Pan, Attica and Religious Innovation from the Persian Wars to the end of the Fourth Century BC.” In Religion and Society. Rituals, Resources and Identity in the Ancient Graeco-roman World 189–200. Quasar.

Krasilnikoff, J.A. 2010. “Marginal land, its boundaries, and the rupestral horoi of Attica.” CIMed 61:49–69.

Krentz, P. 2013a. “Hell: How Did Hoplites Fight?” In Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece, edited by D. Kagan and G. F. Viggiano, 134–56. Princeton, NJ.

Krentz, P. 2013b. “Marathon and the development of the exclusive hoplite phalanx.” In Μarathon 2,500 years, edited by C. Carey and M. Edwards, BICS Suppl. 124, 35–44. University of London.

Langdon, M.K. 1985. “The territorial basis of the Attic demes.” SymbOslo 60(1):5–15.

Langdon, M.K. 1988. “The ΖΩ/ΒΑ Horoi at Vari in Attica.” GRBS 29 (1):75–81.

Langdon, M.K. 2015. “Herders’ graffiti.” In ΑΞΩΝ: Studies in honor of Ronald S. Stroud, edited by A.P. Matthaiou and N. Papazarkadas, 1:49–58. Athens: Greek Epigraphic Society.

Langdon, M.K. 2016. “Additions to the Corpus of Greek Erotic Inscriptions.” ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΙΟΝ 5:83–104.

Lohmann, H. 1989. “Αγρόκτημα με πύργο κλασικής εποχής στην περιοχή Θυμάρι Παλαιάς Φώκαιας” ΑΑΑ 22-28 (1989-1995), 189–95.

Lohmann, H. 1992. Agriculture in Ancient Greece, Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium at the Swedish Institute at Athens, 16–17 May 1990, edited by Berit Wells. p. 28-60.

McCredie, J. R. 1966. “Fortified military camps in Attica”. Hesperia, Suppl. 11.

Mastrapas, A. 2013. “The introduction of Pan’s worship to Athens.” In Μarathon 2,500 years, edited by C. Carey and M. Edwards, BICS Suppl. 124, 111–22, University of London.

Merkouris, Sp., and Spathari, E. 2010. Δημοκρατία και η Μάχη του Μαραθώνα. Αθήνα: Καπόν.

Mussche, H. 1975. “Thorikos in Archaic and Classical Times.” In Miscellanea Graeca I. Ghent, edited by H. Mussche, P. Spitaels, F. Goemaere-De Poerck, 45–54.

Neumann, S. 2020. “In den Höhlen des Pan – eine Untersuchung zu den Kulten in den attischen Panheiligtümern”. Helga Bumke (Hrsg.) Kulte Im Kult Sakrale Strukturen Extraurbaner Heiligtümer Internationale Tagung des Forschungsprojektes ›Kulte Im Kult‹ Der Nordrhein-Westfälischen Akademie Der Wissenschaften Und Der Künste an Der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg Vom 12. Bis 13. Februar 2016, 67–101.

Nevett, L. 2005. “Between Urban and Rural: House-Form and Social Relations in Attic Villages.” In Ancient Greek Houses and Households: Chronological, Regional and Social Diversity, edited by Β. Ault and L.C. Nevett, 83-98. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Ober, J. 2007. “Ι besieged that man. Democracy's revolutionary start”. In Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece, edited by K. Raaflaub, J. Ober, and R. Wallace, 83–104. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Calfornia Press.

Papademetriou, T.I. 1958. “Μαραθών Σπήλαιο Πανός”, edited by A.K. Οrlandos. Ergon, 15–22.

Petridou, G. 2016. Divine epiphany in Greek literature and culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Platias, A. 2020. “The grand strategy of Themistocles: how a medium-sized city of Attica defeated the Persian Superpower and turned itself into a Naval Empire.” In Thermopylae-Salamis, Victory of eternal ideas and values, 2500 Years, Anniversary Edition, Marianna V. Vardinoyannis Foundation, 372–90.

Polinskaya, I. 2003. “Liminality as Metaphor: Initiation and the Frontiers of Ancient Athens.” In Initiation in Ancient Greek Rituals and Narratives. New Critical Perspectives, edited by D. B. Dodd and C. A. Faraone. 85–106. London.

Pritchard, D.M. 1998. ''Thetes, Hoplites, and the Athenian Imaginary.'' In Ancient history in a modern university: Vol. 1. The ancient Near East, Greece, and Rome, edited by T. W. Hillard, R. A, Kearsley, C. E. V. Nixon and A. M. Nobbs, 121–27. Sydney and Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing.

Raaflaub, K.A. 2007. “The breakthrough of Dēmokratia in mid-fifth-century Athens”. In Origins of democracy in ancient Greece, edited by K. Raaflaub, J. Ober, and R. Wallace, 105–54. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Calfornia Press.

Raaflaub, K.A., and Wallace, R.W. 2007. “ ‘People’s power’ and egalitarian trends in archaic Greece”. In Origins of democracy in ancient Greece, edited by K. Raaflaub, J. Ober, and R. Wallace, 22–48. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Calfornia Press.

Roussos, E.N. 1986. “Οι άλλοι Θεοί.” In Ελληνική Μυθολογία, edited by I.T. Kakridis, Vol. 2, Οι Θεοί, 236–44. Athens: Εκδοτική Αθηνών.

Schörner, G., and Goette, H.R. 2004. Die Pan-Grotte von Vari, mit epigraphischen Anmerkungen von Klaus Hallof, Von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein.

Schwartz, A. 2009. Reinstating the hoplite. Arms, Armour and Phalanx Fighting in Archaic and Classical Greece, Historia Einzelschriften, 207.

Steinhauer, G. 1994. “Παρατηρήσεις στην οικιστική μορφή των αττικών δήμων.” In The Archaeology of Athens and Attica under the Democracy, edited by W.D.E. Coulson, O. Palagia, T.L.Shear, H.A. Shapiro and F.J.Frost, 37:175–189. Oxbow Monograph.

Stavropoulos, F. 1938. “Ἱερατικὴ οἰκία ἐν Ζωστῆρι τῆς Ἀττικῆς". ArchEph 1938, 1–31.

Steinhauer, G. 2009. Marathon: and the Archaeological Museum. Athens: John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation.

Stronk, J.P. 2019. “From Sardis to Marathon. Greco-Persian relations 499-490 BC: A Review, part two: The battle of Marathon and its implications.” Talanta 51:77–226.

Surmelēs, D., 1854. “Ἀττικά ἤ περὶ δήμων Ἀττικῆς ἐν οἷς καὶ περὶ τινων μερῶν τοῦ ἄστεως.” Έκδοσις πρώτη. Τύποις Αλεξάνδρου Κ. Γκαρπολά, Athens.

Taylor, C. 2010. “Graffiti and the Epigraphic Habit: Creating Communities and Writing Alternate Histories in Classical Attica.” In Ancient graffiti in context, edited by Baird, J. and Taylor, C. 2: 91-109. Routledge.

Traill, J.S. 1986. Demos and Trittys: epigraphical and topographical studies in the organization of Attica. Toronto: Athenians, Victoria College.

Van de Moortel, A., and Langdon, M.K. 2017. “Archaic Ship Graffiti from Southern Attica, Greece: typology and preliminary contextual analysis.” IJNA 46(2): 382–405.

Varoucha-Christodoulopoulou, E., 1961. “Συμβoλὴ εἰς τὸν Χρεμωνίδειον Πόλεμον, 266/5–263/2 π.Χ.”. ArchEph 1953-54(3): 321–349. Athens.

Vidal-Naquet, P. 1986. “The Black Hunter Revisited.” PCPS, 32(212): 126–44.

Weller, C.H. 1903. “The Cave at Vari. I. Description, account of excavation, and history.” AJA 7(3): 263–88.

Whitehead, D. 1986. The demes of Attica, 508/7-ca. 250 BC: A political and social study. Princeton University Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 2623-3428 (digital), 2623-3436 (print)

© 2018-2020 National and Kapodistrian University of Athen, Department of History and Archaeology.